Website of Tobias Westmeier

Orchids of Australia

Australia is home to about 1,800 species of mostly terrestrial orchids. The south-east and south-west of the continent are particularly rich in species, with approximately 400 known orchid species occurring in south-western Australia alone. On this page I present some of the more common species of terrestrial orchids found throughout the temperate regions of Australia. Most of the featured species are endemic to Western Australia, but quite a few species from the south-east of the country are included as well.

Several of Australia’s orchid species look very similar and require an expert to tell apart. This is particularly the case with Spider Orchids (Caladenia), Donkey Orchids (Diuris), Mignonette Orchids (Microtis) and Greenhood Orchids (Pterostylis). The situation is complicated further by the large number of hybrids known to exist in the wild, in particular among the Spider Orchids. Hence, a few of the species below have been marked as “unidentified”.

Lastly, most of the orchid profiles below are still incomplete and only contain photos at this stage, but no descriptions. I’m not sure if I will ever find the time to complete them.


Genus Acianthus

Acianthus caudatus
Mayfly Orchid
(Acianthus caudatus)
Acianthus exsertus
Mosquito Orchid
(Acianthus exsertus)

Genus Caladenia – Spider Orchids

Subgenus Caladenia – Lady Fingers

Caladenia catenata
White Fingers
(Caladenia catenata)
Caladenia carnea
Pink Fingers
(Caladenia carnea)

Subgenus Elevatae – Fairy Orchids

Caladenia flava
Cowslip Orchid
(Caladenia flava)
Caladenia latifolia
Pink Fairy Orchid
(Caladenia latifolia)
Caladenia reptans
Little Pink Fairy Orchid
(Caladenia reptans)
Caladenia nana
Pink Fan Orchid
(Caladenia nana)

Subgenus Calonema – Spider Orchids

Caladenia discoidea
Antelope Orchid
(Caladenia discoidea)
Caladenia macrostylis
Leaping Spider Orchid
(Caladenia macrostylis)
Caladenia drummondii
Winter Spider Orchid
(Caladenia drummondii)
Caladenia longicauda
White Spider Orchid
(Caladenia longicauda)
Caladenia splendens
Splendid Spider Orchid
(Caladenia splendens)
Caladenia speciosa
Sandplain White Spider Orchid
(Caladenia speciosa)
Caladenia sp.
Unidentified Spider Orchid
(Caladenia sp.)
Caladenia citrina
Margaret River Spider Orchid
(Caladenia citrina)
Caladenia uliginosa
Darting Spider Orchid
(Caladenia uliginosa)
Caladenia excelsa
Giant Spider Orchid
(Caladenia excelsa)
Caladenia nivalis
Exotic Spider Orchid
(Caladenia nivalis)
Caladenia ferruginea
Rusty Spider Orchid
(Caladenia ferruginea)
Caladenia brownii
Karri Spider Orchid
(Caladenia brownii)
Caladenia lorea
Blushing Spider Orchid
(Caladenia lorea)
Caladenia arenicola
Carousel Spider Orchid
(Caladenia arenicola)
Caladenia georgei
Tuart Spider Orchid
(Caladenia georgei)
Caladenia thinicola
Scott River Spider Orchid
(Caladenia thinicola)
Caladenia procera
Carbunup King Spider Orchid
(Caladenia procera)
Caladenia paludosa
Swamp Spider Orchid
(Caladenia paludosa)
Caladenia applanata
Broad-lipped Spider Orchid
(Caladenia applanata)
Caladenia williamsiae
Williams’ Spider Orchid
(Caladenia williamsiae)
Caladenia rhomboidiformis
Diamond Spider Orchid
(Caladenia rhomboidiformis)
Caladenia ensata
Stumpy Spider Orchid
(Caladenia ensata)
Caladenia longiclavata
Clubbed Spider Orchid
(Caladenia longiclavata)
Caladenia magniclavata
Big Clubbed Spider Orchid
(Caladenia magniclavata)
Caladenia corynephora
Club-lipped Spider Orchid
(Caladenia corynephora)
Caladenia infundibularis
Funnel-web Spider Orchid
(Caladenia infundibularis)
Caladenia falcata
Fringed Mantis Orchid
(Caladenia falcata)
Caladenia attingens
Forest Mantis Orchid
(Caladenia attingens)
Caladenia integra
Smooth-lipped Spider Orchid
(Caladenia integra)
Caladenia roei
Clown Orchid
(Caladenia roei)
Caladenia hirta
Sugar Candy Orchid
(Caladenia hirta)

Subgenus Phlebochilus – Wispy Spider Orchids

Caladenia nobilis
Noble Spider Orchid
(Caladenia nobilis)
Caladenia vulgata
Common Spider Orchid
(Caladenia vulgata)
Caladenia pendens
Pendant Spider Orchid
(Caladenia pendens)
Caladenia fluvialis
Brookton Highway Spider Orchid
(Caladenia fluvialis)
Caladenia sp.
Unidentified Spider Orchid
(Caladenia sp.)
Caladenia polychroma
Joseph’s Spider Orchid
(Caladenia polychroma)
Caladenia radialis
Drooping Spider Orchid
(Caladenia radialis)
Caladenia xantha
Primrose Spider Orchid
(Caladenia xantha)
Caladenia denticulata
Yellow Spider Orchid
(Caladenia denticulata)
Caladenia sp.
Unidentified Spider Orchid
(Caladenia sp.)
Caladenia sp.
Unidentified Spider Orchid
(Caladenia sp.)
Caladenia chapmanii
Chapman’s Spider Orchid
(Caladenia chapmanii)
Caladenia filifera
Blood Spider Orchid
(Caladenia filifera)
Caladenia caesarea
Mustard Orchid
(Caladenia caesarea)


Caladenia flava × Caladenia latifolia
Spectacular Spider Orchid
(Caladenia × spectabilis)
Caladenia flava × Caladenia reptans
Unnamed Hybrid
Caladenia flava × Caladenia reptans
Caladenia longicauda × Caladenia uliginosa
Protruding Spider Orchid
(Caladenia × exserta)
Caladenia falcata × Caladenia longicauda
Wheatbelt Spider Orchid
(Caladenia × cala)
Caladenia arenicola × Caladenia longicauda
Unnamed Hybrid
Caladenia arenicola × Caladenia longicauda
Caladenia arenicola × Caladenia georgei
Unnamed Hybrid
Caladenia arenicola × Caladenia georgei
Caladenia arenicola × Caladenia paludosa
Unnamed Hybrid
Caladenia arenicola × Caladenia paludosa
Caladenia paludosa × Caladenia sp.
Unidentified Hybrid
Caladenia paludosa × Caladenia sp.
Caladenia attingens × Caladenia infundibularis
Unnamed Hybrid
Caladenia attingens × Caladenia infundibularis
Caladenia thinicola × Caladenia sp.
Unidentified Hybrid
Caladenia thinicola × Caladenia sp.
Caladenia doutchiae × Caladenia roei
Unnamed Hybrid
Caladenia doutchiae × Caladenia roei
Caladenia carnea × Caladenia catenata
Unnamed Hybrid
Caladenia carnea × Caladenia catenata

Genus Caleana

Caleana major
Large Duck Orchid
(Caleana major)

Genus Calochilus – Beard Orchids

Calochilus campestris
Copper Beard Orchid
(Calochilus campestris)
Calochilus paludosus
Red Beard Orchid
(Calochilus paludosus)
Calochilus robertsonii
Purple Beard Orchid
(Calochilus robertsonii)
Calochilus gracillimus
Slender Beard Orchid
(Calochilus gracillimus)
Calochilus sp.
Unidentified Beard Orchid
(Calochilus sp.)
Calochilus stramenicola
Wandoo Beard Orchid
(Calochilus stramenicola)

Genus Corybas – Helmet Orchids

Corybas recurvus
Helmet Orchid
(Corybas recurvus)
Corybas barbarae
Fairy Lanterns
(Corybas barbarae)

Genus Cryptostylis

Cryptostylis ovata
Slipper Orchid
(Cryptostylis ovata)
Cryptostylis subulata
Large Tongue Orchid
(Cryptostylis subulata)
Cryptostylis erecta
Bonnet Orchid
(Cryptostylis erecta)

Genus Cyanicula

Cyanicula gemmata
Blue China Orchid
(Cyanicula gemmata)
Cyanicula gertrudiae
Pale China Orchid
(Cyanicula gertrudiae)
Cyanicula sp. ‘Dale’
Dale China Orchid
(Cyanicula sp. ‘Dale’)
Cyanicula sericea
Silky Blue Orchid
(Cyanicula sericea)

Genus Cyrtostylis

Cyrtostylis huegelii
Midge Orchid
(Cyrtostylis huegelii)

Genus Dendrobium

Dendrobium speciosum
King Orchid
(Dendrobium speciosum)

Genus Dipodium – Hyacinth Orchids

Dipodium variegatum
Spotted Hyacinth Orchid
(Dipodium variegatum)
Dipodium roseum
Rosy Hyacinth Orchid
(Dipodium roseum)

Genus Disa

Disa bracteata
South African Orchid
(Disa bracteata)

Genus Diuris – Donkey Orchids

Diuris brumalis
Winter Donkey Orchid
(Diuris brumalis)
Diuris corymbosa
Common Donkey Orchid
(Diuris corymbosa)
Diuris brachyscapa
Western Wheatbelt Donkey Orchid
(Diuris brachyscapa)
Diuris recurva
Mini Donkey Orchid
(Diuris recurva)
Diuris tinkeri
Arrowsmith Pansy Orchid
(Diuris tinkeri)
Diuris magnifica
Pansy Orchid
(Diuris magnifica)
Diuris longifolia
Purple Pansy Orchid
(Diuris longifolia)
Diuris jonesii
Dunsborough Donkey Orchid
(Diuris jonesii)
Diuris tinctoria
Sandplain Donkey Orchid
(Diuris tinctoria)
Diuris sp.
Unidentified Donkey Orchid
(Diuris sp.)
Diuris sp.
Unidentified Donkey Orchid
(Diuris sp.)
Diuris sp.
Unidentified Donkey Orchid
(Diuris sp.)
Diuris sp.
Unidentified Donkey Orchid
(Diuris sp.)
Diuris laxiflora
Bee Orchid
(Diuris laxiflora)
Diuris decrementa
Common Bee Orchid
(Diuris decrementa)
Diuris sp. ‘Augusta’
Augusta Bee Orchid
(Diuris sp. ‘Augusta’)

Genus Drakaea – Hammer Orchids

Drakaea glyptodon
(Drakaea glyptodon)
Drakaea thynniphila
Narrow-lipped Hammer Orchid
(Drakaea thynniphila)
Drakaea gracilis
Slender Hammer Orchid
(Drakaea gracilis)
Drakaea livida
Warty Hammer Orchid
(Drakaea livida)


Drakaea gracilis × Drakaea livida
Drakaea gracilis × Drakaea livida

Genus Elythranthera – Enamel Orchids

Elythranthera brunonis
Purple Enamel Orchid
(Elythranthera brunonis)
Elythranthera emarginata
Pink Enamel Orchid
(Elythranthera emarginata)


Elythranthera × intermedia
Intermediate Enamel Orchid
(Elythranthera × intermedia)

Genus Ericksonella

Ericksonella saccharata
Sugar Orchid
(Ericksonella saccharata)

Genus Eriochilus – Bunny Orchids

Eriochilus dilatatus
White Bunny Orchid
(Eriochilus dilatatus)
Eriochilus helonomos
Swamp Bunny Orchid
(Eriochilus helonomos)
Eriochilus sp.
Unidentified Bunny Orchid
(Eriochilus sp.)

Genus Gastrodia

Gastrodia lacista
Potato Orchid
(Gastrodia lacista)
Gastrodia sesamoides
Cinnamon Bells
(Gastrodia sesamoides)

Genus Glossodia

Glossodia minor
Small Waxlip Orchid
(Glossodia minor)

Genus Leporella

Leporella fimbriata
Hare Orchid
(Leporella fimbriata)

Genus Leptoceras

Leptoceras menziesii
Rabbit Orchid
(Leptoceras menziesii)

Genus Lyperanthus

Lyperanthus serratus
Rattle Beaks
(Lyperanthus serratus)

Genus Microtis – Mignonette Orchids

Microtis media
Common Mignonette Orchid
(Microtis media)
Microtis atrata
Swamp Mignonette Orchid
(Microtis atrata)
Microtis parviflora
Slender Onion Orchid
(Microtis parviflora)

Genus Orthoceras – Horned Orchids

Orthoceras strictum
Horned Orchid
(Orthoceras strictum)

Genus Paracaleana – Duck Orchids

Paracaleana minor
Small Duck Orchid
(Paracaleana minor)
Paracaleana lyonsii
Midget Duck Orchid
(Paracaleana lyonsii)
Paracaleana nigrita
Flying Duck Orchid
(Paracaleana nigrita)
Paracaleana hortiorum
Hort’s Duck Orchid
(Paracaleana hortiorum)
Paracaleana triens
Broad-billed Duck Orchid
(Paracaleana triens)
Paracaleana brockmanii
Brockman’s Duck Orchid
(Paracaleana brockmanii)
Paracaleana alcockii
Alcock’s Duck Orchid
(Paracaleana alcockii)
Paracaleana granitica
Granite Duck Orchid
(Paracaleana granitica)
Paracaleana gracilicordata
Slender-leafed Duck Orchid
(Paracaleana gracilicordata)

Genus Pheladenia

Pheladenia deformis
Blue Fairy Orchid
(Pheladenia deformis)

Genus Praecoxanthus

Praecoxanthus aphyllus
Leafless Orchid
(Praecoxanthus aphyllus)

Genus Prasophyllum – Leek Orchids

Prasophyllum fimbria
Fringed Leek Orchid
(Prasophyllum fimbria)
Prasophyllum brownii
Christmas Leek Orchid
(Prasophyllum brownii)
Prasophyllum giganteum
Bronze Leek Orchid
(Prasophyllum giganteum)
Prasophyllum hians
Yawning Leek Orchid
(Prasophyllum hians)
Prasophyllum gracile
Little Laughing Leek Orchid
(Prasophyllum gracile)
Prasophyllum plumiforme
Dainty Leek Orchid
(Prasophyllum plumiforme)
Prasophyllum ovale
Little Leek Orchid
(Prasophyllum ovale)
Prasophyllum cyphochilum
Pouched Leek Orchid
(Prasophyllum cyphochilum)
Prasophyllum parvifolium
Autumn Leek Orchid
(Prasophyllum parvifolium)
Prasophyllum sp.
Undescribed Leek Orchid
(Prasophyllum sp.)

Genus Pterostylis – Greenhood Orchids

Subgenus Pterostylis

Section Pterostylis
Pterostylis nutans
Nodding Greenhood
(Pterostylis nutans)
Pterostylis hispidula
Box Greenhood
(Pterostylis hispidula)
Pterostylis erecta
Upright Maroonhood
(Pterostylis erecta)
Section Foliosae – Snail Orchids and Shell Orchids
Pterostylis dilatata
Robust Snail Orchid
(Pterostylis dilatata)
Pterostylis pyramidalis
Tall Snail Orchid
(Pterostylis pyramidalis)
Pterostylis sp. ‘short sepals’
Short-eared Snail Orchid
(Pterostylis sp. ‘short sepals’)
Pterostylis glebosa
Clubbed Snail Orchid
(Pterostylis glebosa)
Pterostylis ectypha
Murdoch Snail Orchid
(Pterostylis ectypha)
Pterostylis sp. ‘inland’
Hairy-stemmed Snail Orchid
(Pterostylis sp. ‘inland’)
Pterostylis sp. ‘crinkled leaf’
Slender Snail Orchid
(Pterostylis sp. ‘crinkled leaf’)
Pterostylis sp.
Unidentified Snail Orchid
(Pterostylis sp.)
Pterostylis hamiltonii
Red-veined Shell Orchid
(Pterostylis hamiltonii)
Pterostylis aspera
Brown-veined Shell Orchid
(Pterostylis aspera)
Pterostylis grandiflora
Cobra Greenhood
(Pterostylis grandiflora)

Subgenus Oligochaetochilus

Section Catochilus – Bird Orchids
Pterostylis barbata
Bird Orchid
(Pterostylis barbata)
Pterostylis galgula
Dwarf Bird Orchid
(Pterostylis galgula)
Pterostylis turfosa
Bearded Bird Orchid
(Pterostylis turfosa)
Section Oligochaetochilus – Rufous Greenhoods
Pterostylis ciliata
Hairy Rufous Greenhood
(Pterostylis ciliata)
Pterostylis perculta
Ruddy Hood
(Pterostylis perculta)
Section Stamnorchis – Jug Orchid
Pterostylis recurva
Jug Orchid
(Pterostylis recurva)
Section Urochilus – Banded Greenhoods
Pterostylis vittata
Banded Greenhood
(Pterostylis vittata)
Pterostylis sanguinea
Dark Banded Greenhood
(Pterostylis sanguinea)
Pterostylis orbiculata
Coastal Banded Greenhood
(Pterostylis orbiculata)
Pterostylis concava
Cupped Banded Greenhood
(Pterostylis concava)
Pterostylis atrosanguinea
Crowded Banded Greenhood
(Pterostylis atrosanguinea)
Pterostylis sp. ‘northern’
Northern Banded Greenhood
(Pterostylis sp. ‘northern’)
Pterostylis sp.
Unidentified Greenhood Orchid
(Pterostylis sp.)
Pterostylis sargentii
Frog Greenhood
(Pterostylis sargentii)
Section Squamatae
Pterostylis longifolia
Tall Greenhood
(Pterostylis longifolia)

Genus Pyrorchis

Pyrorchis nigricans
Red Beaks
(Pyrorchis nigricans)

Genus Spiculaea

Spiculaea ciliata
Elbow Orchid
(Spiculaea ciliata)

Genus Thelymitra – Sun Orchids

Thelymitra ixioides
Spotted Sun Orchid
(Thelymitra ixioides)
Thelymitra crinita
Queen Orchid
(Thelymitra crinita)
Thelymitra macrophylla
Scented Sun Orchid
(Thelymitra macrophylla)
Thelymitra graminea
Shy Sun Orchid
(Thelymitra graminea)
Thelymitra petrophila
Granite Sun Orchid
(Thelymitra petrophila)
Thelymitra sp. ‘Murchison’
Northern Scented Sun Orchid
(Thelymitra sp. ‘Murchison’)
Thelymitra frenchii
Scarp Sun Orchid
(Thelymitra frenchii)
Thelymitra vulgaris
Slender Sun Orchid
(Thelymitra vulgaris)
Thelymitra latiloba
Wandoo Sun Orchid
(Thelymitra latiloba)
Thelymitra apiculata
Cleopatra’s Needles
(Thelymitra apiculata)
Thelymitra variegata
Queen of Sheba
(Thelymitra variegata)
Thelymitra pulcherrima
Northern Queen of Sheba
(Thelymitra pulcherrima)
Thelymitra maculata
Eastern Curly Locks
(Thelymitra maculata)
Thelymitra flexuosa
Twisted Sun Orchid
(Thelymitra flexuosa)
Thelymitra antennifera
Vanilla Orchid
(Thelymitra antennifera)
Thelymitra villosa
Custard Orchid
(Thelymitra villosa)
Thelymitra sargentii
Freckled Sun Orchid
(Thelymitra sargentii)
Thelymitra benthamiana
Leopard Orchid
(Thelymitra benthamiana)